Gökkafes, An Architectural Disaster

When I got around Beşiktaş in Istanbul, that structure was familiar to me owing to Arch121 lecture.
After I did research about Gökkafes on internet, I encountered the best expression,  ”Gökkafes has the most beautiful landscape in Istanbul because it cannot see itself. ”

As you can figure out the fact thanks to that expression, even if plenty of people struggle to prevent construction of that alien building according to its context, unfortunately money has considered the most significant thing.


(Taken by myself)



Adolf Loos, Ornament and Crime / Arch 121

This week, we examined an article about Ornament and Crime by Adolf Loos.  It was a challenging topic in 18th and 19th century and he was also pioneer of modern architecture. ”passion for smooth and precious surfaces”, this sentence can express clearly Loos’s point of view. When we look at the text, we can realize that there are plenty of radical judgement on whether ornament is crime or not.

He suggests that we should prefer to leave ornament and slant to pure aesthetic aspects, this case could be efficient for us in terms of time and money. For instance, if we compare 18th and 20th century’s people, the latter would rather more simple stuffs and that’s why he spend less money and could get aesthetic. However, people preferring to ornamented stuffs have to spent more money.

Moreover, we can consider a craftsman. While they produce ornamented stuffs, they spend more time to get more detailed works compared to generating simple stuffs.

He also suggested that every era should create their own architecture. Thus, if you live in a modern era, traditional architecture is named ”crime”. I totally agree with the first sentence because of reflection. When we look at structures, we should realize it’s period, I think that. Additionally, in terms of Loos’s radical thoughts, I consider that we can create pure and at the same time aesthetic structures, that’s why ornament can be unnecessary part. Some people can prefer to ornamented things but i think that it shouldn’t be crime.

One more thing 🙂
I decided that it’s all about personality. For instance I like tattoo’s and therefore I don’t agree with Loos’s ideas about  tattoo is only for prisoner. However, Even if Loos has a lots of radical thoughts, I agree with most of it such as simplicity, pure forms, wasting time and money.

Here, there are pretty much examples of Loos’s works.


(American Bar, Adolf Loos, Wien)


(Moller House, Adolf Loos)

Even his grave include pure form.


References :




Loos, Adolf. “Ornament and Crime” in: Conrads, Ulrich (ed.) Programs and Manifestoes on 20th Century Architecture, The MIT Press, 1975.

Experiencing Architecture / Arch121

This week, our assignment was about Steen Eiler Rasmussen’s book, Experiencing Architecture. After that assignment, I decided to do research more deeply about Rasmussen since I thought that his ideas are really interesting in terms of architectural qualities. Also, in this reading, Rasmussen explains his ideas very clearly by using common examples.

Initially, he starts to explain his thought by mentioning relation between architecture and fine art. According to him, both of them interested in ”appearance” concerns, also their using techniques should be utilized and harmonized. Because architects work with form and mass like a sculptor, we may resemble this situation to painters who work with colors. However, for him, architecture is more abstract such as regulating lines which have already mentioned. He also added a statement which I like it so much, ”Architecture and art should not be explained, it must be experienced.” This is what we have mentioned since the beginning. That statement explains all architectural necessities like legibility, harmony, whether eyesore or not, utility and such.

In terms of creating new one, Rasmussen was thinking that when you are in a modern city, you should find a more suitable solutions in order to demonstrate your time’s quality if you are architect, like a Rasmussen’s statement, ”Building should be preferably ahead of it’s time when planned so that it will be keeping with times as long as it stands.” I totally agree with this statement due to using new techniques. If we prefer previous and more older architecture styles, it couldn’t express themselves in terms of reflecting own qualities.

Moreover, another thing which I loved, Rasmussen’s examples from cups to tennis racquets. Because all of them related to life and also ”experiencing”, they are really clear, understandable. Then I thought that this is a kind of observation in terms of lightness, softness, roughness and such. In that part, he emphasizes relation between observation and architecture. According to him, people started to observe their surroundings while they were children and this is not only surroundings but also functions of them. That’s why, it is quite significant to understand utility of architecture.

  • Rasmussen, S.E. “Basic Observations” in: Experiencing Architecture, Chapman & Hall, 1959, pp. 9-34.

Two Aspects, Different Architects / Week 5 / Arch 121

In that week, we tried to focus on Le Corbusier’s and also Kari Jormakka’s point of view about Regulating Lines and, Music and Mathematics as Models. When I started to read both texts, I did a little bit research then I thought that our topic has plenty of example which has related to our surroundings. In order that lots of structures are built according to geometrical proportions and also instincts, we have great amount of examples. By considering and comparing Corbusier’s and Jormakka’s views, we can understand clearly both ideas.

Initially, both of architects realized that rhythm was the one of the necessary element due to get together all parts on the same unifying and also express as a sense of coherence. Moreover, Le Corbusier expressed their ideas by defining Regulating Lines which means using proportions of geometry in building giving a harmony and order. According to him, this mathematical proportions or ”Regulating Lines” makes structures to rectify and correct, or in other words, it is a satisfactory of a spiritual order. On the other hand, Kari Jormakka pointed out his ideas by giving an example of musical rhythm. He considers turning musical ideas into a something visual. By this means, he tried to demonstrate effects of musical instinct on the buildings and this situation could be inspiration for the architects like the example of ”Luxorgan”


(Images by Norman Crowe in Nature and the Idea of a Man-Made World, courtesy of MIT Press , for Regulating Lines)


( a Sketch about Luxorgan)


After the both interpretations, we can say that these architects’ aim is a similar. So that they want to organize and regulate these because of obtaining sense of coherence, they claimed similar aspects.

Le Corbusier. “Regulating Lines”. Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publication, 1986 (originally 1931). pp. 65-88.

Jormakka, Kari. “Music and Mathematics as Models”. Basics Design Methods. Basel: Birkhauser, 2007. pp. 20-32.

First Digital Poster / Arch121 & Arch111 / Week 4

First Digital Poster / Arch121 &  Arch111 / Week 4

This week, we worked on Le Corbusier’s point of view from his popular book ”Towards a New Architecture” . After a long duration of research and examining reading, we tried to create a digital poster including keywords according to our interpretation. Then, here is a result !
I hope that it can be comprehensible.

Arch 121 / Week 2 / Frank Lloyd Wright

This week, we analyzed a reading about introducing architectural theory including an amazing architect Frank Lloyd Wright! Although I have already be informed about F.L. Wright, I considered that I had the opportunity to examine this text as a detailed. First of all, because Wright is known as the best architect of American history, I started to read excitedly. I think that the most interesting notion which belongs to Wright is Organic Architecture. As Wright assumes that designing structures should be harmonious between humanity and structure, that’s why his new formal and structural attitude is called Organic architecture. Organic architecture not only addresses environmental concerns but also express individual point of views.

Moreover,  Even if plenty of modernist or post-functionalist argue about relation between form and function such as Eisenman claims that functionalism is a cultural concept or Richard Hill mentions hierarchy among purpose, function and use, the only sure thing we can say that these concepts are subjective as well as not clear.

According to Wright, continuity is aesthetic sense and also structural elements like walls or doors shouldn’t be partly of each other but part of each other. Additionally, ”continuity covers form + function ” may help to express the definition. And here, you can see the best examples of continuity / Guggenheim Museum in NYC (pic2, pic3)


Finally,  when I looked at Wright’s interior designs, I realized that outside and inside have a strong relationship as Wright mentioned like ”Outside may come inside.” or ”Enclosed space may be reality of building”
We can see a great interior designs belonging to Wright. ( Pic 4, Pic 5, Pic 6)
And I think that those structure are reputable proves this idea’s accuracy.


(Pic 4)


(pic5, falling water’s interior)


(pic6, classic home in Chiccago)


Wright, F. L. “Excerpts from: An American Architecture”, in: Smith, K. (ed.) Introducing Architectural Theory, New York and London: Routledge, 2012, pp. 184-188 )

First Arch121 Assignment / Reading

During prep-school, mentioned long readings appeared !

Our first Arch121 assignment was sent by Bilge Imamoglu. Then, I consider that this reading provided me different point of view about changing the role of architect and also definition of architecture.
Initially, I thougth that there should be distinction between architecture and engineering. Architecture is known as visual and functional art,however, engineering is a kind of utilitarian occupation in my opinion. The reason why I consider definition of architecture as a art is that architecture is to create unique structures. That architecture is seen as a art by using hidden metaphorical techniques such as Chicago Tribune Tower or Robie House ( Pic1,Pic2) contributes to their uniqueness.

Robie House (Pic2)Chicago Tribune (Pic1)

Moreover, architecture should be connection between human relations/values and structures. That’s why, even if some of the structures are not designed by professional architects, they can be conceivable as architecture because of their anthropological values like homesteads in Africa. (Pic3)

Homesteads in Africa (Pic3)

Another thing that amazes me is change in the role of architect. Throughout our history, architects were  described little more than technician and draughtspeople due to having not a separation between parts of engineering and architecture. Thanks to opening of the school of civil engineering in Paris(1747), the distinction became apparent.